Ahmad Syarif is an analyst with Bowergroup Asia. He holds a master's degree from the University of Birmingham, where he wrote his thesis on the rise of hadrami religious authority in Palembang, South Sumatra.
Aisah Putri Budiatri is a researcher in the Centre for Political Studies at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (P2P LIPI). She holds a master’s in political science from State University of New York at Albany. Her research focuses on political parties, the legislature, elections and the Papua conflict.
Akhmad Misbakhul Hasan is Secretary General of the Indonesian Forum for Budget Transparency (FITRA). Prior to taking up this role in 2018, he was active for 15 years in NGOs, with a focus on macro-economics, governance, national and local planning and budgeting, gender-responsive budgeting, infrastructure, and other areas of public policy.
Dr Alfindra Primaldhi completed his PhD at the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Indonesia (UI), studying morality and political behaviour. He is now an adjunct researcher at the Demography Institute of the Faculty of Business and Economics at UI.
Amalia Puri Handayani holds master's degrees in social policy for development from Erasmus University (the Netherlands) and in women's studies from the University of Indonesia. She has been involved in research projects on violence against women and sexual and reproductive health with recent applications in abortion care.
Amanda Achmadi is a senior lecturer in Architectural Design (Asian Architecture and Urbanism) at the Melbourne School of Design. Amanda completed her undergraduate degree in architecture at Bandung’s Parahyangan University and her doctorate degree in architecture and Asian studies at the University of Melbourne. Her research works explore how identity politics operate through architectural productions and formation of built environments in colonial and postcolonial Indonesia.
Andreas Harsono is Indonesia researcher at Human Rights Watch. He helped establish media freedom groups including the Alliance of Independent Journalists (1994), Institute for the Study of the Free Flow of Information (1995), the Pantau Foundation (2003), and the Bangkok-based South East Asia Press Alliance (1998). Follow him on Twitter @andreasharsono.
Andrew Wiguna Mantong is a researcher at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Jakarta. He also teaches at the Department of International Relations at the University of Indonesia.
Andy Fuller is an honorary fellow at the Asia Institute, The University of Melbourne. He blogs about sport in Indonesia, and elsewhere, at readingsideways.net. His book, Football in Indonesia: Passion, Violence and Mismanagement will be published by Peter Lang in 2019.
Angus Campbell, leader of the Nossal Institute’s One Health Unit, is a practising livestock veterinarian who works with smallholder farmers and governments across Asia to improve animal and human wellbeing through sustainable livestock production.
Ari Pramuditya is a researcher at Amnesty International Indonesia. He previously worked as a researcher at the Institute for Criminal Justice Reform (ICJR) and holds a master's in public international law from Leiden University.
Ashlee Betteridge is the Manager at the Development Policy Centre. She was previously a Research Officer at the centre from 2013-2017. A former journalist, she holds a Master of Public Policy (Development Policy) from ANU and has development experience in Indonesia and Timor-Leste.
Awidya Santikajaya is PhD candidate at Australian National University. His PhD research concentrates on comparative foreign policies of non-BRIC emerging powers, using Indonesia, South Africa and Turkey as case studies. His study is funded by the World Bank-Government of Indonesia’s SPIRIT scholarship. He holds a master of international relations from The Johns Hopkins University and a bachelor degree in economics from University of Indonesia.
Bahruddin is a PhD candidate in the School of Social and Political Sciences (SSPS) at The University of Melbourne and a lecturer at the Department of Social Development and Welfare, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Gadjah Mada University (UGM).
Balawyn Jones is a PhD candidate and Research Fellow at the Melbourne Law School, University of Melbourne. She researches across the fields of Indonesian law and human rights, in particular with respect to gender, religion and law.
Benjamin Hegarty is a McKenzie Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Melbourne, prior to which he was visiting scholar at the University of California Irvine. His research on the history of ‘transgender’ in Indonesia has received several awards and appears in Journal of the History of Sexuality, Transgender Studies Quarterly and Medicine Anthropology Theory. His collaborative research with Indonesian colleagues on the intersection of masculinity, sexuality and the provision of HIV care in Jakarta is ongoing.
Bhatara Ibnu Reza is a PhD candidate in the Faculty of Law at the University of New South Wales, researching civilian involvement in state defence. Bhatara is also a senior researcher at Imparsial, the Indonesian Human Rights Monitor.
Dr Budhy Munawar Rachman is a lecturer in Islamic studies at the Driyarkara School of Philosophy (STF) in Jakarta, a program officer at The Asia Foundation and a human rights and religious freedom activist.
Dr Budi Hernawan is an anthropologist and research fellow at the Abdurrahman Wahid Centre for Interfaith and Peace, University of Indonesia (UI) and a lecturer at the Graduate School of Paramadina University.
Burhanuddin Muhtadi is a PhD candidate in the Department of Political and Social Change at the Australian National University (ANU) and a lecturer at Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN). He is also an executive director of Indikator Politik Indonesia. He has published his work in the Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies (BIES), Asian Journal of Social Sciences, and the Graduate Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies.
Chaula Rininta Anindya is a PhD student at the Graduate School of International Relations, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan. Her research interests include deradicalisation, counterterrorism policy, and civil-military relations in Indonesia.
Christian Donny Putranto has recently completed a Master of Laws (Human Rights) at the Melbourne Law School, the University of Melbourne, as an Australian Awards Scholar. He previously worked at the UNHCR Indonesia and the International Committee of the Red Cross in Indonesia.
Dewi Fortuna Anwar is a leading analyst on Indonesia’s foreign policy and democratisation, as well as on ASEAN and regional political and security issues. She currently serves as deputy for government policy support in the Secretariat of the Vice President and research professor at the Centre for Politics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (P2P-LIPI). She has held numerous senior positions, including assistant minister/state secretary for foreign affairs and deputy secretary for political affairs during President BJ Habibie’s administration.
Diane Zhang is a Melbourne-based economist who researches the use of data and information in policy formulation. She has over 15 years of experience working in public policy in Australia, Indonesia and China. In 2004-2010, she lived and worked in Indonesia, consulting for the World Bank, DFAT, United Nations and GTZ.
Diatyka Widya Permata Yasih is a PhD candidate at the Asia Institute, University of Melbourne. She is also a lecturer at the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Indonesia.
Dimas is a lecturer in economic and consumer psychology at the University of Surabaya, and a behavioural scientist at behaviour change agency nudgeplus.net. His research focuses on human attention, limited cognitive resources, and decision making.
Dr Dina Afrianty is a research fellow at La Trobe Law School and founder of the Australia-Indonesia Disability Research and Advocacy Network (AIDRAN). She is also an associate of the Centre for Indonesian Law, Islam and Society (CILIS) at Melbourne Law School. She received her PhD from the University of Melbourne in 2011.
Dominique Tasevski completed her Bachelor of Arts (Honours) at the University of Melbourne. Her honours thesis examined CPA-PKI relations during the 1950s and 1960s and was awarded the Brian Fitzpatrick Prize for Best Honours Thesis in Australian History. She specialises in Australia-Indonesia relations and Indonesian history and politics.
Dr Elisabeth Kramer is deputy director at the Sydney Southeast Asia Centre at the University of Sydney. Her research focuses on the intersection between discourse, identity and politics in Indonesia. Current research interests include corruption, the tobacco industry and political empowerment for people with disabilities.
Fathimah Fildzah Izzati is a researcher at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). She is on the editorial board of IndoPROGRESS, an online journal connecting progressive scholars and activists in Indonesia. She has been a member of the Sindikasi Union committee since 2019.
Feri Kusuma is an activist, lawyer and deputy coordinator of the Commission for Disappeared and Victims of Violence (KontraS). Since 2006, Feri has actively advocated for the establishment and supported the work of the Aceh TRC. He is also involved in advocacy for the Papua and national TRCs.
Gaby Gabriela Langi is a researcher at the HIV AIDS Research Center at Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia (ARC AJCUI): Center of Excellence for Health Policy and Social Innovation. She holds a master's degree in public health from Gadjah Mada University.
Gavin Height is a research assistant at La Trobe University. His research interests include Indonesian electoral politics, and gender and sexuality. He has been published in The Jakarta Post and The New Daily, and co-hosts the Digital Indonesia podcast.
Associate Professor Greg Fealy is the head of the Department of Political and Social Change at The Australian National University and a specialist on Islamic politics in Indonesia. He is a senior associate of the Centre for Indonesian Law, Islam and Society (CILIS).
Hannah Loney is a final year PhD candidate in the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies at the University of Melbourne. Her research explores women, violence and everyday life during the Indonesian invasion and occupation of East Timor (1975-99).
Helen Pausacker is the deputy director of the Centre for Indonesian Law, Islam and Society and an editor of the Australian Journal of Asian Law. She received her PhD from the Melbourne Law School in 2013.
Hendri Yulius is a researcher and writer. He is the author of a number of books, including Coming Out, now available at Gramedia. He holds a master's degree from the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore.
Dr Herlambang P Wiratraman is a lecturer and executive director of the Centre for the Study of Human Rights Law at the Faculty of Law, Airlangga University. He is also chair of the Indonesian Lecturers Association for Human Rights (SEPAHAM Indonesia, 2014-2017) and previously served as head of the Indonesian Association of Legal Philosophy (AFHI, 2013-2014).
Hipolitus Yolisandry Ringgi Wangge is a researcher at the Marthinus Academy in Jakarta. His current research focuses on democratisation in developing countries, particularly the role of crucial actors such as the military during democratic transition and consolidation. He has conducted fieldwork in West Papua on the role of Papuan youth in political and cultural identity during the special autonomy era.
Howard Dick is an honorary professorial fellow in the Faculty of Business and Economics at the University of Melbourne and conjoint professor in the Faculty of Business and Law at the University of Newcastle (NSW).
Ibnu Nadzir is a researcher at the Center for Culture and Society in the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). He holds a master's degree in Social and Cultural Anthropology from the University of Amsterdam.
Dr Ignatius Praptoraharjo (Gambit) is a research consultant at the Center for Health Policy and Management at Gadjah Mada University. He completed his doctorate 2010 at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He was a Faculty of Arts Indonesia Initiative visiting scholar in 2020.
Inaya Rakhmani is a lecturer at the Department of Communications, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Indonesia and the head of its Communication Research Centre. She is an associate at the Asia Research Centre, Murdoch University, and a member of the Indonesian Young Academy of Sciences (ALMI).
Dr Iqra Anugrah is a research fellow at the Institute for Economic and Social Research, Education, and Information (LP3ES) in Jakarta. He is also a contributing editor for Indoprogress, an online platform connecting progressive scholars and activists in Indonesia. He currently serves as an Indonesia-based correspondent fellow for New Mandala.
Irsyad Rafsadie is a researcher at PUSAD Paramadina. He has co-authored “Policing Religious Conflicts in Indonesia” and co-edited “Basudara Stories of Peace from Maluku: Working Together for Reconciliation.”
Jamhari Makruf is the vice rector of the newly established Indonesian International Islamic University in Jakarta. He is on the advisory board of the Centre for Study of Islam and Society (PPIM) at Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN) Jakarta, and is an advisor to AIPJ2 (Australia-Indonesia Partnership for Justice).
Jenny Munro is an anthropologist who has worked on gender, health and sexuality in Indonesia since 2003. Her 2018 book, Dreams Made Small, explores the racialisation of education in West Papua, while her more recent research activity focuses on how racism affects health care.
Dr Jess Melvin is Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Sydney Southeast Asia Centre and was previously Henry Hart Rice Faculty Fellow in Southeast Asian Studies and a Postdoctoral Fellow in Genocide Studies at Yale University. She completed her PhD, "Mechanics of Mass Murder: How the Indonesian Military Initiated and Implemented the Indonesian Genocide: The Case of Aceh," at the University of Melbourne in 2014.
Joost Coté is Senior Research Fellow (History) in the School of Philosophical, Historical and International Studies at Monash University. He is the editor and translator of Kartini: The Complete Writings 1898-1904.
Judith Jacob is a PhD candidate focusing on the ideological evolution of Islamist militancy in Indonesia from 1945 in the Department of International History at the London School of Economics. She is also an independent terrorism analyst working with several political and security risk firms based in the United Kingdom.
Kanti Pertiwi is a PhD candidate at the University of Melbourne. She is also a lecturer in management at the Faculty of Business and Economics at the University of Indonesia and previously worked for the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK). Her dissertation is titled: “'But that’s not corruption': An interpretive approach to business-government relations to corruption in Indonesia". She can be reached at email@example.com.
Kate Grealy is a PhD student at the Australian National University. She has worked in national crime prevention and counter terrorism in Australia, and in violence monitoring and international development in Indonesia.
Dr Krishna Hort is senior technical consultant at the Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne. He has worked in health assistance programs in South and Southeast Asia for more than 25 years, including 20 years of periodic work in Indonesia.
Krisna is a PhD student of economics at the Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University. His research focuses mainly on trade and investment liberalisation and its impact on firms in Indonesia.
Lies Marcoes is a women's rights activist, writer and researcher and the director of Rumah Kita Bersama Foundation. Lies holds a master's in anthropology from the University of Amsterdam. She lives in Bogor.
Dr Linda Rae Bennett is a medical anthropologist who has worked on gender, sexuality, and reproductive and sexual health and rights in Indonesia for the past 20 years. Her recent book, Sex and Sexualities in Contemporary Indonesia, won the 2015 Ruth Benedict Prize from the AQA for outstanding edited volume.
Luqman is a PhD candidate at the Asia Institute, the University of Melbourne. His doctoral research focuses on Islamism and the state in Indonesia. In Indonesia, Luqman is a lecturer at the Department of International Relations, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta.
Lury is a PhD candidate in Behavioural Economics at the University of Nottingham. His research focuses on lie theory. He leads the Indonesia Behavioural Economics Forum (IBEF), a multidisciplinary team advocating behavioural economics for a better life.
Dr Mada Sukmajati is a lecturer at the Department of Politics and Government, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta. His research interests include political parties, elections and the legislature. He can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mahalli is communications officer and a researcher with the Australia-Indonesia Disability Research and Advocacy Network (AIDRAN). He is also a researcher at Center for Disability Studies and Services Brawijaya University (PSLD UB).
Manneke Budiman is a visiting scholar at the University of Melbourne with the Indonesia Initiative program. He teaches literature and cultural studies in the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Indonesia.
Matthew Busch is a PhD candidate at Melbourne Law School, where his research focuses on the Indonesian state and political economy of economic management. He is also a non-resident fellow at the Lowy Institute.
Moh Zaki Arrobi is a PhD researcher working for the ‘Sacralizing Security: Religion, Violence, and Authority’ (SACRASEC) project at the Department of Cultural Anthropology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. He is also a lecturer at the Department of Sociology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
Dr Monika Winarnita is Lecturer in Indonesian Studies at Deakin University. She is also an Associate at the Centre for Asia Pacific Initiatives, University of Victoria, Canada, where she completed her postdoctoral fellowship.
Muninggar Sri Saraswati is a lecturer in the communications department of Swiss German University in Tangerang, Indonesia, and a freelance journalist. She holds a PhD in Asian Studies from Murdoch University. Her thesis, "The Political Campaign Industry and the Emergence of Social Media in Post-Authoritarian Indonesian Electoral Politics” examined the use of social media in the 2012 Jakarta Gubernatorial Election, the 2013 Makassar Mayoral Election and the 2014 Presidential Election.
Nadirsyah Hosen is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Law at Monash University and the chair of the advisory board for the Australia-New Zealand branch of Nahdlatul Ulama. He is an associate of the Centre for Indonesian Law, Islam and Society at the Melbourne Law School.
Naila Rizqi Zakiah is a public defender at LBH Masyarakat. LBH Masyarakat is a non-profit organisation that provide free legal aid for marginalised groups such as LGBTIQ, people living with HIV, drug users, sex workers and people facing the death penalty or execution in Indonesia.
Nathanael Gratias Sumaktoyo is a PhD candidate in political science at the University of Notre Dame, USA. He previously studied computer science, social psychology, and statistics, and is interested in voting behavior, political psychology, religion and politics, experimental methods, and causal inference.
Novi Kurnia is a lecturer and the head of the postgraduate program at the Department of Communication Science at Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Novi completed her PhD at Flinders University, South Australia, in 2014. Her thesis was about women film directors and their films in post-New Order Indonesia.
Nurkholis Hidayat is an Indonesian human rights lawyer and previously served as a director of the Jakarta Legal Aid Institute (LBH Jakarta), and national advisor for legal aid and criminal justice for the Australia Indonesia Partnership for Justice (AIPJ). He holds a master of laws from the University of Melbourne.
Olivia Tasevski (@OliviaTasevski) is an international relations and Asian studies tutor at the University of Melbourne, where she completed her Bachelor of Arts (Honours) and Master of International Relations. She specialises in human rights issues in Indonesia and Indonesian history and politics.
Ayu Swandewi is a lecturer and researcher at Udayana University, Bali, and senior project manager at the Bali Tobacco Control Initiative (BTCI).
Ayu graduated with a Master of Public Health from the University of Melbourne in 2008.
Rachael Diprose is a lecturer in development studies at the School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne. She also convenes the School's Conflict, Development and Justice Research Cluster.
Rachma Indah Nurbani is a senior researcher at the SMERU Research Institute, with research interests in food security, nutrition, child well-being, gender equality, shock and crisis, and government budgets.
Randy Wirasta Nandyatama is a lecturer in the Department of International Relations, Gadjah Mada University (UGM). From 2013 to early 2015 he was director of the ASEAN Studies Centre at UGM. He is currently a PhD candidate in the School of Social and Political Sciences in the Faculty of Arts, University of Melbourne. His research focuses on the role of Indonesian civil society organisations in the institutionalisation of human rights in ASEAN.
Ravando Lie is a PhD candidate in the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies at the University of Melbourne. His thesis examines a Chinese-Indonesian newspaper called Sin Po (1910-1965) as a lens to explore the political movements and transnational connections of Chinese-Indonesian society in the Dutch East Indies.
Raynov Tumorang Pamintori is a research fellow at Reprieve. Reprieve is a London-based international legal charity that provides free legal support to some of the world’s most vulnerable people, including those who are facing the death penalty and execution.
Rezza Velayati Deviansyah is an Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP) scholarship awardee. He is a graduate student in the Masters of Globalisation program at Australian National University (ANU).
Ricky Gunawan is a human rights lawyer and Director of LBH Masyarakat (Community Legal Aid Institute). LBH Masyarakat is a frontline human rights organisation that provide free legal services for people facing the death penalty or execution.
Rifqi Assegaf is a PhD candidate in the Melbourne Law School. He has previously served as assistant to the head of the Presidential Working Unit on the Supervision and Oversight of Development (UKP4), as head of research in the Judicial Mafia Task Force, and as director of the Indonesian Institute for an Independent Judiciary (LeIP).
Rizky Argama is research director of the Indonesian Centre for Law and Policy Studies (PSHK) and a lecturer at the Indonesia Jentera School of Law (STH Indonesia Jentera). He holds a Master of Laws from the University of Melbourne.
Dr Robertus Robet (@Republik_Baru) is the head of sociology at the State University of Jakarta (UNJ) and a visiting scholar at the Centre for Indonesian Law, Islam and Society (CILIS) at the University of Melbourne.
Ruth Nikijuluw is a PhD Candidate at the Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University. Her research focuses mainly on local public finance, regional economics and female participation in local politics.
Sana Jaffrey is a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago’s Department of Political Science and a visiting fellow at the Center for Study of Religion and Democracy (PUSAD Paramadina). She previously led the design and implementation of the National Violence Monitoring System (NVMS) database at the World Bank during 2008-2013.
Sandeep Nanwani is an activist, anthropologist and physician who works at the United Nations Population Fund in Jakarta, most recently on a project that supported the development of clinics designed for young peoples’ sexual/reproductive health needs. He is chief medical officer and a long term volunteer for Yayasan Kebaya, a shelter for disadvantaged transgender women in the city of Yogyakarta. He holds a Masters of Medical Science in Global Health Delivery from Harvard University.
Dewi is a sexual and reproductive health (SRH) practitioner with more than 12 years of experience in programs focusing on youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health education and services in Indonesia. She holds an MA in Health Promotion, Education and International Development from the University College London. She is a PhD candidate at the Nossal Institute for Global Health, the University of Melbourne, and is researching the opportunities and challenges of the school-based HPV immunisation program for primary school girls in Indonesia.
Professor Simon Butt is a senior associate of the Centre for Indonesian Law, Islam and Society. He is also an ARC Future Fellow and associate director for the Centre for Asian and Pacific Law at The University of Sydney.
Siswo Mulyartono is a researcher at PUSAD Paramadina. He has co-authored "Policing Religious Conflicts in Indonesia" and wrote his BA thesis on the anti-Ahmadiyya mobilisation in Cikeusik, Banten, at the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University in Jakarta.
Slamet Thohari is a lecturer and researcher with the Center for Disability Services and Studies at Brawijaya University in Malang, and the Indonesian chair of the Australian-Indonesian Disability Research and Advocacy Network (AIDRAN).
Sofie Arjon Schütte is a senior advisor at the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre at the Chr. Michelsen Institute, Norway. She previously served as an adviser for the Partnership for Governance Reform (Kemitraan) and an integrated expert at the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK).
Solahudin is a researcher on jihadi movements in Indonesia. He is the author of The Roots of Terrorism in Indonesia (translated by Dave McRae), published by NewSouth Books in association with the Lowy Institute for International Policy, with international editions by NUS Press and Cornell University Press.
Dr Stewart Fenwick is the author of ‘Blasphemy, Islam and the State: Pluralism and Liberalism in Indonesia’, published by Routledge in 2017. He is an honorary professor at Australian Catholic University and Senior Associate at the Centre for Indonesian Law Islam and Society at Melbourne Law School.
Tessa Toumbourou works on environmental governance issues in Indonesia and is an academic tutor at the University of Melbourne. She holds a Master of Environment (Governance, Policy and Communication stream) from the University.
Tiara Marthias is a health systems researcher at Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia, focusing on health inequity in maternal and child health. She is currently a PhD candidate at the Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne.
Tommy Firmanda is a counsellor of students with disabilities at the Center for Disability Studies and Services Brawijaya University (PSLD UB) and a researcher at the Australia-Indonesia Disability Research and Advocacy Network (AIDRAN). His areas of interest include development of educational practices and multimedia accessibility; students' adoption of technology, including assessment and implementation of inclusive education for the visually impaired.
Unaesah Rahmah is a Research Analyst with the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, a specialist unit with the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. She can be reached at email@example.com.
Usman Hamid is executive director of Amnesty International Indonesia. He holds a master's in philosophy from Australian National University. He has previously served as coordinator of the Commission for Missing Persons and Victims of Violence (KontraS) and in 2012 co-founded Public Virtue and the Indonesian Branch of Change.org. Currently he teaches at Indonesia Jentera School of Law (STH Indonesia Jentera).
Wisnu Prasetya Utomo is a lecturer at the Department of Communication Science, Gadjah Mada University (UGM). His research interests include the political economy of media, political communication, journalism, and misinformation.
Yati Andriyani is a human rights lawyer with the Commission for the Disappeared and Victims of Violence (KontraS) and a council member of the Asian Federation Against Involuntary Disappearances (AFAD).
Zainal Abidin Bagir is a lecturer in the master's program on religious and cross-cultural studies at Gadjah Mada University (UGM) and a senior research fellow at the Paramadina Centre for the Study of Religion and Democracy (PUSAD Paramadina).